Coffee Education

Coffee Cultivation

Everything about Coffee Cultivation and Harvest

Based on Hunam’s Research, coffee is a popular beverage that is prepared from roasted coffee beans that have been ground and picked from the coffee plant. The coffee plant is native to warm regions in Africa, some islands of south and South East Asia. This plant traveled from Africa to other places around the world and currently, it is harvested and cultivated in over 70 countries. The fruit of the coffee plant is harvested which is where we get the coffee bean after processing. The coffee bean is then dried and roasted in various degrees, and categories are based on the desired flavor and fragrance. Today in Humag, we will discuss and explore some of the ways that coffee is cultivated…

There are numerous methods for coffee cultivation, however we will focus on the main cultivation approach which is also one of the most traditional:

Planting Coffee Beans

The traditional method of planting coffee begins at the start of the rainy season. 20 holes are made in the soil and in each opening a coffee bean is embedded. This method potentially kills 50% of the coffee beans consequently half of the coffee beans do not grow.

Another effective and more successful method of planting coffee in Brazil is cultivation of the coffee sprouts in green houses. After 12 to 6 months they are transplanted into soil outside of the green house..

The coffee plant will begin to give flowers usually 3-4 years after it has been planted. From these flowers comes the fruit of coffee (which are typically known as Coffee Cherries). The first advantageous harvest from this plant is usually 5 years after it has been planted. These cherries appear approximately 9 months after the appearance of flowers, changing color from green to red, or purple (dark) indicating the fruit is ready for harvesting.

Joined together, there are two coffee beans in the center of each cherry. Additionally, not all cherries reach harvest point at the same time. So, each bush might need to be harvested in several stages.

Circumstances for Growing Coffee

Coffee is usually cultivated and harvested in warm or tropical regions. 5 regions where coffee is cultivated are: South America, Central America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. About 64% of the worlds coffee cultivation is dedicated to Arabica, while only 34% is dedicated to the cultivation of Robusta coffee. Consequently, we will explore the necessary cultivation conditions for these two types of coffee.

Now we will discuss some of these elements:

Elevation of Cultivation

Arabica is cultivated at 900-2600 meters above sea level

Robusta requires lower elevations of approximately 100-700 meters above sea level.

Water Requirements

The coffee plant requires a lot of precipitation and watering, somewhere around 1500-2000 milliliters per year. An interesting fact is the amount of beans necessary to produce one cup of coffee requires approximately 140 liters of water. Remarkably, considering how much water the coffee plant requires to grow, this plant usually grows in dry regions such as Ethiopia.

Temperature Requirements

The degree of warmth that the coffee plant is cultivated has a large impact on the quality of the coffee. The appropriate temperature for cultivating Arabica coffee is around 15-24⁰C and for Robusta it is 24-30⁰C.

Location of Cultivation

Cultivation and harvesting Arabica coffee originated from Ethiopia, which currently this method is used all over the world, although, this coffee is mostly cultivated in Latin America. Robusta coffee was discovered in Congo and from there traveled to warm regions all over Africa, Vietnam, Indonesia, and beyond. The shared point of cultivation for these two coffees is that they are both cultivated in India, Indonesia, and various other countries in Asia.

Point of Ripening

When the plant begins to flower and the fruit begins to grow, directly depends on the climate. This period for Arabica plants is about 7 months and for Robusta it is about 9 months.

Humag, Hunam’s News Magazine

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